Pest Control

Pest Control Keller TX involves reducing pest numbers to an acceptable level with the least harm to people and property. This typically involves prevention, suppression and, in some situations, eradication.

Prevent pests from entering a building by closing cracks and crevices with caulk or wire mesh. Keep rubbish and compost bins tightly closed. Hang flypaper or use a flieswatter to kill flies.

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Pests are organisms that damage or spoil crops, animals and plants, or that cause illness in people and pets. The goal of pest control is to reduce the number of these organisms to a level that does not cause unacceptable harm. Prevention is the first step in pest management, and it includes pest proofing an establishment to prevent entry by insects or rodents. It also includes removing food, water and shelter sources.

Physical controls include barriers, traps and pheromones. Barriers can include caulking cracks and crevices, replacing damaged door and window screens, and reducing clutter that provides hiding places for pests. Traps are a good way to capture and control pests, but they must be regularly monitored and the baits replaced. Pheromones, such as the pheromone that females release to attract males for mating, can be used to disrupt pest mating and lower insect populations.

Biological pest control uses organisms such as predators, parasites and pathogens to eliminate pests. Some of these organisms attack the exterior of a pest, while others live inside or infect the internal components of a pest, such as its exoskeleton or digestive system. This type of control is generally a less-risky approach than chemical methods because it does not involve the use of synthetic chemicals.

When monitoring, identification and action thresholds indicate that pests are present, IPM programs evaluate control methods based on their effectiveness and risk to humans and the environment. Less-risky control techniques are chosen first, such as highly targeted chemicals, pheromones to disrupt pest mating, or mechanical controls such as trapping and weeding. If these measures do not provide adequate controlmore-risky control options such as broad spraying of non-specific pesticides may be employed.

Biological pest control is usually not an eradication strategy; it is more likely to be a maintenance program, with the goal of keeping pest numbers below damaging levels. However, eradication is occasionally attempted in outdoor pest situations, such as with the Mediterranean fruit fly and gypsy moth. It is also a common strategy in enclosed areas, such as indoors in homes, schools and offices, or in health care, food processing and food preparation facilities.


In addition to prevention, pest control practices include a variety of tactics used to reduce or eliminate existing infestations. Suppression methods typically involve using chemicals or physical barriers to trap or exclude pests from areas where they are not welcome. Whether the pests are insects, rodents or other creatures, their presence in large numbers can cause damage to buildings and their contents, present health risks to people inside the buildings, or simply be an unsightly nuisance.

Most pest control measures are aimed at suppressing pest populations below damaging levels. Chemical pesticides, for example, may be used in the form of aerosol sprays, dusts, baits or gels that poison or disrupt a pest’s nervous system to kill it or prevent reproduction. Chemicals are usually regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency and must be carefully used to minimize harm to humans, pets or beneficial insects.

Other types of pest control practices can be natural or mechanical. For instance, birds that can be a significant nuisance in commercial or residential settings are often controlled by shooting or trapping. Some birds, such as pigeons and starlings, can also cause damage by depositing droppings that contain acidic compounds that deteriorate building materials. Other birds, such as robins and blue jays, are useful in natural pest control by preying on insect pests, such as caterpillars and beetles, which can damage crops.

Some landscape features, such as mountains and bodies of water, restrict the spread of some pests. Food and water availability can also affect pests, as can shelter, which is necessary for overwintering or for some species to hide from predators.

Some microorganisms, such as the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, can be used to control certain pests by producing proteins that are toxic to the pests when they ingest them. Other organisms, such as parasitoids and predators, attack and destroy the pests from the inside. Physical traps and barriers can be used to capture or deter some pests, but these are generally limited in effectiveness unless they are designed for a specific type of pest. Pest identification is important to ensure that the right controls are used, since a mistake can lead to non-target damage or even death of beneficial organisms.


Achieving eradication is a rare goal in outdoor pest control situations, where prevention and suppression are usually more practical. However, eradication can be a goal in enclosed environments such as dwellingsschools and office buildingsand health care, food processing and food preparation facilities. In these cases, eliminating specific pests may help to ensure that other pests cannot infest the area. The pest control strategies used in such circumstances are typically more intensive than those employed in outdoor areas, including the use of chemical sprays and baits.

When it comes to a pest infestation, it’s important for people to understand that not all pests are created equal. While some are more invasive than others, they can all cause significant damage to property, which is why it’s important to take preventative measures to avoid them altogether. Regular inspections of the property, such as those carried out by expert FM companies, can help identify potential pest problems and prevent them from developing into full-blown infestations. For example, woodpiles should be kept away from the home’s exterior walls, gutters should be cleaned out regularly and grass should be trimmed to prevent pests from finding shelter inside.

There are also many chemical pest control methods available, such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. These chemicals come in a wide range of forms, from aerosol sprays to powders and gels, and are designed to kill or repel pests such as weeds, insects and disease-carrying mosquitoes. Although they are regulated and generally not harmful to humans, some can have unintended consequences, such as harming beneficial insects or contaminating water runoff.

Biological pest control practices are often more effective than chemical methods at controlling pests, and involve introducing natural predators to the environment to manage pest populations. This method of pest management is less commonly used than others, but can be an excellent alternative to conventional chemicals where human safety is a consideration.

Other non-chemical pest control techniques include the use of pheromones, which can be manufactured to mimic the attractants that certain species of insects produce. This can confuse male insects and discourage mating, thereby reducing pest numbers. Similarly, parasitic nematodes can be introduced to the soil to kill or disrupt the populations of harmful pests such as grubs and fleas.


Generally speaking, pest control is most economical when done on a preventative basis, before pest populations reach unacceptable levels. However, this requires monitoring pest abundance and damage on a regular basis. This information can be used to develop an economic threshold that indicates the level of pest density or damage at which a cost-effective control measure should be employed. A good threshold will allow for a wide range of controls to be evaluated and employed in order to minimize crop damage and costs, while also maintaining plant quality.

Thresholds vary by pest and crop, as well as growing conditions. For example, a vigorously growing, high-yielding crop can usually tolerate more insect damage in percentage terms than a low-yielding stressed crop. In addition, yields and reproductive components (pods, bolls or heads) may have different damage tolerance levels than vegetative parts of a crop. The development of a threshold for a particular crop and growing condition will take into account the expected market value and cost of control for that specific pest, as well as the risk associated with each level of injury.

Economic thresholds can be based on the number of insects that must be present to cause critical damage or to reduce seed quality to an unacceptable level. These thresholds are often called “nominal” or educated estimatessince the relationship between the pest population and crop damage has not been experimentally determined for all combinations of crops and pests. They can vary over time as well, with the market price for the crop changingand spray costs fluctuating.

Once the monitoring, identification and action thresholds indicate that a pest control is required, growers should evaluate each possible control method for effectiveness and risk. In general, less risky control methods should be employed first, such as use of pheromones to disrupt pest mating and/or weeding. When preventive methods are no longer effective, or are not available or cost-effective, more aggressive pest control options are considered. This would include the application of more intensive treatments such as aerial or broadcast spraying with chemicals, but these should only be employed if there is a high likelihood that the economic injury level will be reached if the pest is not controlled.